Staffing level Estimation: NORDEN WORK

Project manager has to figure out Staff Estimation after the effort required to develop a software has been determined.

Norden investigated the staffing pattern of R & D project.

Norden Estimation:

He studied the Staffing patterns of R & D projects and proposed that Staffing level patterns can be approximated by the "Rayleigh Distribution Curve" which specifies that the relationship between applied effort and delivery time for software project. It is also called Putnam- NORDEN-Rayleigh Curve or PNR curve.

He represented the Rayleigh Curve by this equation



Here E is the effort required at time t.(engineers and staffs)

K= Area under curve.

td= time at with the curve attains its maximum values.

Staffing Level Estimation: Putnam's Work

Putnam analyzed that characteristic of software development and staffing has some characteristics of R and D projects studied by Norden and Rayleigh Norden Curve can be used to Relate the Number of delivered lines of code to the effort and the time required to develop the project.


k= total effort expended in PM in product development.

L= the product size in KLOC

td= time required to develop the software

Ck = state of Technology constraints

like Ck=2(poor development environment)

Ck=8 (good software development environment)

Ck=11 (Excellent environment)

25-Staffing Level Estimation- Software Engineering Tutorials In HINDI


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